His uncle sent him to the Franciscan friary in Perugia, where he studied the sciences at the university. Folger Shakespeare Library: referencedIn: Bulas y Breves, siglos XIII-XVII [Manuscrito]. In the autumn of 1499, he called for a crusade and sought aid and money from all Christendom. The King made several demands of Pope Alexander, one of which was that the Castel S. Angelo be turned over to French forces. With some courage Julius marched his army to Bologna and then against the French to Mirandola. [61] Louis offered Cesare another of his relatives, the "beautiful and rich" Charlotte d'Albret,[62] whom Cesare married at Blois on 13 May 1499. [98] Julius hired Swiss mercenaries to fight against the French in Milan in May 1512.[78][99]. However, the pope only wore his beard from 27 June 1511 to March 1512, as a sign of mourning at the loss of the city of Bologna by the Papal States. The pope's hirsute chin may have raised severe, even vulgar criticism, as at one Bologna banquet held in 1510 at which papal legate Marco Cornaro was present. Gregorovius, VII.2, pp. The richest was Cardinal Ascanio Sforza, at 30,000 ducats. The body was placed for a time at the Altar of Saint Andrew in the Basilica and was then carried by the Imperial Ambassador, the papal Datary, and two of Paris' assistants to the altar of the Chapel of Pope Sixtus, where the Vicar of the Vatican Basilica performed the final absolution. The current Pope Benedict XVI is the 265th pope in church history. He also warned King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain that Alexander was intriguing with the French, which brought an immediate visit of a Spanish ambassador to the Pope. Pope was born on December 5, 1443 in Vatican..Pope is one of the famous and trending celeb who is popular for being a Celebrity. The French were preparing new campaigns to reconquer Milan, and Julius II confessed to a Venetian ambassador a plan to invest his counselor Luigi d'Aragona with the kingdom of Naples in order to end Spanish presence in the south. Venice was the first to feel the strong hand of Julius II. It was reported that France had deposited 200,000 ducats into a bank account to promote della Rovere's candidature, while the Republic of Genoa had deposited 100,000 ducats to the same end. Pope Julius II (Giuliano della Rovere) (1443-1513), Pope 1503-1513. Eubel, II, p. 56, no 656. After his uncle died in 1484, he influenced the elevation of Cardinal Cibo to the papacy as Innocent VIII, and he presumably also influenced most of the pope's decisions. On 14 July, Cardinal Ascanio Sforza, della Rovere's sworn enemy, fled Rome with all his property and friends. A warrior pope, he failed to bring Italy under papal control. [26], In 1479, Cardinal Giuliano served his one-year term as Chamberlain of the College of Cardinals. University of Pennsylvania Library: referencedIn: Grassi, Paride, d. 1528. In the competition for a building plan, the design of Rossellino was immediately rejected as being out of date. p. 74. Naples, even if recognized as a papal fief, was still under Spain and in fact Julius II was planning to end Spanish presence in the south. The principal complaints of the barons were the heavy taxation imposed by Ferdinand to finance his war against the Saracens, who had occupied Bari in 1480; and the vigorous efforts of Ferrante to centralize the administrative apparatus of the kingdom, moving it away from a feudal to a bureaucratic system. [27], Giuliano was again named Papal Legate to France on 28 April 1480, and left Rome on 9 June. He also had a sister, Lucina (later the mother of Cardinal Sisto Gara della Rovere). He received a Franciscan education as a young man and was promoted to the offices of priest, bishop, and cardi- nal by his uncle Pope Sixtus IV (r. 1471–84), between the years 1471 and 1479, there- after serving as pope from 1503 until his death in 1513. [16][17], Della Rovere, as a young man, showed traits of being rough, coarse and given to bad language. [40] On Palm Sunday, 20 March, Cardinal della Rovere, concealing his activities from his principal rival, Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia (later Pope Alexander VI), rode out of Rome and took ship at Ostia, intending to head for Genoa and Avignon to prepare to wage war between the Church and the King of Naples, Ferdinand I (Ferrante). Pope Julius II bull, 1504. Della Rovere, who was trying to repair his relations with the House of Borgia, was also involved in another clause of the treaty, the marriage between Cesare Borgia and Carlotta, the daughter of the King of Naples, who had been brought up at the French Court. Pastor, VI, pp. Nevertheless, although Julius had centralized and expanded the Papal States, he was far from realizing his dream of an independent Italian kingdom. Julius II is usually depicted with a beard, after his appearance in the celebrated portrait by Raphael, the artist whom he first met in 1509. It was being reported in France by June 1496, moreover, that King Charles intended to have a papal election in France and to have Cardinal della Rovere elected pope. Decrees were made in the interests of the Roman nobility, in whose shoes the new pope now stepped. Date of birth : 1443-12-05 Date of death : 1513-02-21 Birthplace : Albisola, Republic of Genoa Nationality : Italian Category : Historian personalities Last modified : 2011-08-25 Pope Julius II, who was pope from 1503 to 1513, was a noted Renaissance patron of the arts. "[97], Whereupon Julius entered into another Holy League of 1511: in alliance with Ferdinand II of Aragon and the Venetians he conspired against the Gallican liberties. The Kingdom of Naples was under Spanish rule, and the Borja family from Spain was a major political faction in the Papal States following the reign of Alexander VI. The prestige of the della Rovere family was seriously damaged, and in an attempt to exculpate himself Pope Innocent began to withdraw his support for them. [90] The League fought against the Republic of Venice. Pope Julius II was also responsible for commissioning Michelangelo to carve one of his all-time most famous statues, a Statue of Moses for the tomb of the Pope. The Venetians regained their territories lost to France, and the Papal States annexed Parma and Modena. He usurped the papal power by the devil's aid, and I forbid under the pain of excommunication anyone to speak or think of Borgia again. As Legate, his mission was threefold: to make peace between King Louis XI and the Emperor Maximilian of Austria; to raise funds for a war against the Ottoman Turks; and to negotiate the release of Cardinal Jean Balue and Bishop Guillaume d'Harancourt (who by then had been imprisoned by Louis for eleven years on charges of treason). "Accompanying the young king on his military campaign, [della Rovere] entered Rome along with him, and endeavoured to instigate the convocation of a council to inquire into the conduct of the pope with a view to [deposing him], but Alexander, having gained a friend in Charles VIII's minister. Italy wasn't at peace either. Cesare Borgia, Duke of Romagna, shared the same fate and lost his possessions. After Venice crumbled against the combined forces and was ready to negotiate with Julius II, he withdrew from the League and set the terms to free the Venetians from previously imposed bans. Louis XII of France controlled the Duchy of Milan, previously held by the Sforzas, and French influence had replaced that of the Medici in the Republic of Florence. When Swiss mercenaries came to the Pope's aid, the French army withdrew across the Alps into Savoy in 1512. He reached Paris in September, and finally, on 20 December 1480, Louis gave orders that Balue be handed over to the Archpriest of Loudun, who had been commissioned by the Legate to receive him in the name of the Pope. [129] The French writer Philippe de Mornay (1549–1623) accused all Italians of being sodomites, but added specifically: "This horror is ascribed to good Julius. Julius did not neglect the Papacy and the Church. Pastor, VI, p. 61 with note ||. [12] The King entered Rome with his army on 31 December 1495, with Giuliano della Rovere riding on one side and Cardinal Ascanio Sforza riding on the other. Like voting is closed. [2], Julius II became Pope in the context of the Italian Wars, a period in which the major powers of Europe fought for primacy in the Italian peninsula. Thenceforward, all popes were bearded until the death of Pope Innocent XII in 1700. He was educated among the Franciscans by his uncle, who took him under his special charge and later sent him to a convent in La Pérouse with the purpose of obtaining knowledge of the sciences. Louis wanted an annulment from Queen Joan so he could marry Anne of Brittany, in the hope of annexing the Duchy of Brittany; Alexander, in turn, wanted a French princess as wife for Cesare. During the late 1490s, he became more closely acquainted with Cardinal de’ Medici and his cousin Giulio de’ Medici, both of whom would later become Pope, (i.e. The Top 25 Wrestling Announcers Of All Time, Famous Role Models You Would Like To Meet, 16th Century Spiritual & Religious Leaders. Cardinal Raffaele Riario, the Dean of the College of Cardinals and Bishop of Ostia, presided. From the beginning, Julius II set out to defeat the various powers that challenged his temporal authority; in a series of complicated stratagems, he first succeeded in rendering it impossible for the Borgias to retain their power over the Papal States. He was named Papal Legate to France in 1480 and subsequently went there. [111] He received Holy Communion and was granted the plenary indulgence on the morning of 19 February, according to the Venetian Ambassador. Following the death of Cardinal Guillaume d'Estouteville, he was promoted to suburbicarian Bishop of Ostia in 1483. He died of a fever in the night of 20–21 February 1513. [75] The rooms were used to accommodate Emperor Charles V on his visit to the Vatican after the Sack of Rome (1527), and subsequently, they became the residence of the Cardinal-nephew and then the Secretary of State. He encouraged the French conquest of the papal territory of Naples in 1494 and 1495, and following the successful military campaign, he unsuccessfully sought to convoke a council that would depose Alexander for simony. Julius II was succeeded by Pope Leo X. Both houses desired an end to the occupation of Italian lands by the armies of France. To most historians Julius was manly and virile, an energetic man of action, whose courage saved the Papacy. Pope Julius II (Italian: Papa Giulio II; Latin: Iulius II; born Giuliano della Rovere; 5 December 1443 – 21 February 1513) was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 1503 to his death in 1513. Della Rovere, jealous and angry, hated Borgia for being elected over him. Julius II, original name Giuliano della Rovere, (born Dec. 5, 1443, Albisola, Republic of Genoa—died Feb. 21, 1513, Rome), greatest art patron of the papal line (reigned 1503–13) and one of the most powerful rulers of his age. The rulers of Europe paid little attention, but to show his sincerity Alexander imposed a tithe on all the residents of the Papal States and a tithe on the clergy of the entire world. [4] Pastor, V, p. 326. A veteran of the Sacred College, della Rovere had won influence for the election of Pope Pius III with the help of Florentine Ambassador to Naples, Lorenzo de' Medici. [59] They then moved on to meet the King at Chinon, where Cesare Borgia fulfilled one of the terms of the treaty between Louis and Alexander by producing the red hat of a cardinal, which had been promised for the Archbishop of Rouen, Georges d'Amboise. The second was an attempt to recover Ferrara for the Papal States (1 September 1510 – 29 June 1512). A French entourage arrived in Rome on 31 May, but immediately relations broke down with the pro-Spanish Cardinal Rodrigo. [37], Sixtus IV died on 12 August 1484 and was succeeded by Innocent VIII. [15] Giuliano was educated by his uncle, Fr. Please Like other favourites! Unable to free Rimini and Faenza from the Venetians on his own, he reluctantly joined the League of Cambrai, formed by Emperor Maximilian I and Louis XII of France, on 23 March 1509. He issued a strict bull against simony at papal elections; condemned the heresy of Piero de Lucca; instituted Capella Julia, a school for ecclesiastical chant; and convoked the Fifth Lateran Council to eradicate abuses from the church. They are listed in chronological order within each section. Julius III, born Giovanni Maria del Monte, Roman Catholic Pope from 1550 to 1555, was born on the 10th of September 1487. 26. However, it does not take very much effort to discover which way Julius leans. Dumesnil, pp. Following the death of Innocent VIII, he was his logical successor and had support from both King Charles VIII of France and Charles' enemy King Ferrante of Naples. On 18 April 1506 Pope Julius II laid the foundation stone of the new St. Peter's Basilica for the successful architect, Donato Bramante. He was created cardinal by Pope Paul III in 1536, filled several important legations, and was elected pope on the 7th of February 1550, despite the opposition of Charles V , whose enmity he had incurred as president of the council of Trent. [110] From then until 6 January he was confined to bed, and most of the time with a fever; he had lost his appetite, but the doctors were unable to diagnose his languor. Julius, unlike his predecessors and many of his successors, was committed to reforming the Church. Eubel, II, p. 56, no 652. At the third hour of the evening, the body was laid in a sepulcher between the altar and the wall of the tribune.[113]. The idea was not his, but originally that of Nicholas V, who had commissioned designs from Bernardo Rossellino. Here are the other artifacts connected to Pope Julius II. Della Rovere was in favor of the marriage, but, according to Pope Alexander, King Louis XII was not, and, most especially, Carlotta was stubbornly refusing her consent. He still continued to hear masses, visits churches, and address audiences, but after becoming bed-ridden during Christmas, he made arrangements for his funeral. He next focused on freeing entire Italy from the French, and in 1510-11, formed the Holy League, which initially only included the pope, the Venetians, and Spain. [94] The Venetians, on making humble submission, were absolved at the beginning of 1510, and shortly afterward France was placed under papal interdict. [18], After his uncle was elected Pope Sixtus IV on 10 August 1471,[19] Giuliano was appointed Bishop of Carpentras in the Comtat Venaissin on 16 October 1471. The conciliarist movement promoted by foreign monarchs was crushed, and Julius II affirmed ultramontanism at the Fifth Lateran Council. Leo was a personification of Renaissance ideals. [125] This sexual reputation survived Julius, and the accusation continued to be made without reservation by Protestant opponents in their polemics against "papism" and Catholic decadence. Tell us More. In a second attempt to overthrow the Aragonese monarchy, the Prince of Salerno Antonello II di Sanseverino, on the advice of Antonello Petrucci and Francesco Coppola, gathered together several feudal families belonging to the Guelph faction and supporting the Angevin claim to Naples. This is a list of Roman Catholic popes by nationality. His rivals included Cardinal Ardicio della Porta and Cardinal Ascanio Sforza, both patronized by the Milanese. [41] On 28 June the Pope sent back to Naples the token gift of a palfrey which symbolized the King of Naples' submission and demanded the full feudal submission of the Kingdom of Naples to the Roman Church according to long-standing tradition. Innocent looked for new allies and settled on the Republic of Florence. Pope Julius II. 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